We quantify the current water use of China’s thermoelectric power sector with plant-level data. We also quantify the future implications for cooling water use of different energy supply scenarios at both a regional and national levels. Within China, water withdrawal and consumption are projected to exceed 280 and 15 billion m3 respectively by 2050 if China does not implement any new policies, up from current levels of 65.2 and 4.64 billion m3. Improving energy efficiency or transforming the energy infrastructure to renewable, or low-carbon, sources provides the opportunity to reduce water use by over 50%. At a regional level, central and eastern China account for the majority of the power sector’s water withdrawals, but water consumption is projected to increase in many regions under most scenarios. In high-renewable and low-carbon scenarios, concentrated solar power and inland nuclear power, respectively, constitute the primary fresh water users. Changing cooling technology, from open-loop to closed-loop in the south and from closed-loop to air cooling in the north, curtails the power sector’s water withdrawal considerably while increasing water consumption, particularly in eastern and central China. The power sector’s water use is predicted to exceed the regional industrial water quota under the ‘3 Red Line’ policy in the east under all scenarios, unless cooling technology change is facilitated. The industrial water quota is also likely to be violated in the central and the northern regions under a baseline scenario. Moreover, in line with electricity production, the power sector’s water use peaks in the winter when water availability is lowest. Water-for-energy is a highly contextual issue – a better understanding of its spatio-temporal characteristics is therefore critical for development of policies for sustainable cooling water use in the power sector.
Liao, X., Hall, J. and Eyre, N.