The ‘Energy Supply’ model provides the capability to perform integrated analyses of the whole GB energy system from supply sources, generation, transmission, distribution and end-use. The model is built on an optimisation framework. It performs integrated optimal operation of the energy system across electricity, gas, heat, and hydrogen networks. The model can deliver insights and evaluation of national energy infrastructure and its interconnectedness with global energy systems and through an ‘energy hub’ concept the interactions with local energy systems.

The Energy Supply model is built from ground-up by extending the Combined Gas and Electricity Network Model (CGEN) with integrated local energy systems using the Energy Hub concept.

The Energy Supply model is able to handle interdependencies with the Transport (energy demand and EV battery utilisation for V2G services) and Water Supply (cooling water for thermal power stations) models.

The Energy Hub approach enables:

  • combined operation of electricity, natural gas, heat distribution systems.
  • exploration of new energy vectors e.g. Hydrogen
  • investigation of alternative renewable energy supply options that are available locally e.g. Waste to energy, bio-energy
  • modelling of energy demand for transport. e.g. EVs and vehicle to grid schemes.

Additional functions in the Energy Supply model include:

  • Bi-directional electricity interconnector flows
  • Demand side management (load shifting)
  • Intermittent renewable generation which captures spatial and temporal variability
  • Distributed injection of hydrogen and biogas into the natural gas distribution system.
  • Constrained and optimised heat supply methods that allows the investigation of different future heat supply scenarios/strategies.


The energy supply model produces results at both local and national scales. At the local level, the energy systems’ behaviour to meet consumers energy demands (including the demand for transport – electricity and hydrogen) are presented in hourly temporal resolution and across Energy Hub regions spatially. The hourly time scale enables the system operation to be investigated under the presence of large capacities of intermittent generation and storage facilities.
Figure 1 shows the total hourly supply of electricity and heat over a cold winter week for the selected Energy Hub regions (left). Note: The results can be shown nationally or per individual region if required.

The results can also be presented seasonally – e.g. (bottom left) Emissions from the selected regions per season.

Figure 1: Example local scale outputs – Hourly electricity and heat supply (winter) with seasonal variations in CO2 emissions.

The distribution of small scale (embedded) generation across GB and their electricity output is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Example distributed generation of electricity.

The heat supply at the local level from building scale technologies – small scale gas boilers and heat pumps, and district heating technologies – CHP and large gas boilers are shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Example of distributed supply of heat from buildings and district heating technologies.

National scale results correspond to the operation of electricity and natural gas transmission networks.

The operation of these transmission networks take into account of the integrated operation of electricity, natural gas and heat supply systems modelled using Energy Hubs at the local scale.

The variations in the electricity supply mix are shown per season (pie charts) in Figure 4. In each season the percentage of electricity interconnector flows (middle bar chart) are shown as imports or exports. The electricity supply by technology is shown in hourly resolution (bottom stacked area chart).

Figure 4: Example outputs related to the national scale electricity transmission system.



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